A Unique Venue for PBR Event

Welcome back.  Over the years I’ve brought you readers many stories I hope you’ve found interesting from Whitey Bulger’s trial in Boston, the American Sniper trial in Stephenville, Texas and even the heartbreaking trial in Aurora, Colorado where a deranged kid killed dozens of people in a movie theater. I’ve also brought you inspiring stories about camping out in places like the Grand Canyon, visits to great museums that I’ve been lucky enough to explore across the country and this week it’s a story about the PBR (Professional Bull Riders) who held their big championship a few months ago at the BOK Center in Tulsa.

Now the PBR has come to Corpus Christi, Texas with a show like none other so here’s the scoop. The event last week wasn’t held in a big arena but on the top deck of the retired aircraft carrier the USS Lexington which was decommissioned in 1991 and now is docked permanently in a harbor in Corpus Christi. At the time it was retired the Lexington was the oldest working carrier in the U.S. Navy. Also known as the “Blue Ghost” the ship was originally named the USS Cabot but during WWII the first USS Lexington was sunk during the battle of the Coral Sea.  After that the Cabot changed its name to Lexington and joined the fifth fleet at Pearl Harbor. Throughout the war the carrier was involved in every military action in the pacific, destroying 372 enemy aircraft in air battles and another 475 planes on land. The carrier was also responsible for sinking 300,000 tons of ships all while traveling over 209,000 miles roughly equivalent to eight trips around the world.

In preparation for the PBR event the Lexington was closed to the public this past weekend and over 300,000 tons of dirt and steel were brought in to build a bucking bull arena on the top deck of this massive ship. Only people holding PBR tickets along with the media, livestock contractors and the cowboys themselves were allowed on board. The event was televised last Sunday right after the NFL football game on CBS and you might still be able to replay it. I also need to mention that the competition was sponsored by the Airforce Reserves and all the proceeds were donated to charities supporting military service people and their families.

When it is not hosting a special event, the Lexington offers a wide variety of exhibits and attractions to the general public including a self-guided tour of the flight deck that features 20 aircraft on loan from the National Museum of Naval Aviation, anti-aircraft guns, and landing gear. On the main Hangar Deck, you can participate in the Virtual Battle Stations which will give you the experiences of a crew in combat, bringing to life real battles aboard different classes of ships and planes. There is also a flight simulator that puts you in the cockpit of an F-18 fighter jet as well as an extensive exhibit on the history of Pearl Harbor and much more. I have toured the Lexington myself and believe me you don’t want to miss it if you are in Corpus Christi, it’s truly an amazing piece of history that we should never forget.

Till next time I’ll see ya down the road…………….


The Art of Giving

Welcome back. Friends. We all need them and when one of your best friends is C.J. “Pete” Silas, the Chairman and CEO of Phillips Petroleum Company from 1985-1994 and you are Glenn Cox his second in command good things can happen. If you weren’t around in those days, I can tell it was a magical time, not only for Phillips but also for every non-profit and church in Bartlesville and everywhere around the world where Phillips did business. I bring this small tribute to these fellows because following the death of his wonderful wife Glenn decided to move and sell their extensive personal memorabilia. The sale was conducted last week by Minuteman Auction Company and at Glenn’s request each person attending the sale was required to pay $20. All of these proceeds were donated to the Pete Silas Boys and Girls Club, raising almost $1,500 for their important programs. This is another reason that the residents of this area should never forget the generosity of people like Pete and Glenn. As long as my column runs, I will try to make sure that we always remember the men and women whose contributions of both time and money make our community such a special place.

While I was researching this story, I also learned from the owner of Minuteman Auction Company Wayne Vineyard that he is holding another sale on behalf of a prominent local man this weekend. Former State Senator Steve Martin is downsizing and Wayne said it would be a quality sale with many unusual items that Steve and his wife collected.

Also, on the local front, if you heard dozens of ambulance, fire truck and police car sirens last week going off it wasn’t a practice drill for a tornado, it was a celebration for a local celebrity’s recovery from COVID19. His name, as I’m sure many of you know him, is Mike Smith and a finer fellow you’ll never meet.

While I’m still traveling on the south coast of Texas as always when I come across a museum I stop. The nearby Texas Maritime Museum enlightened me about the history, not of Texas cowboys but Texas sailors. This museum takes you back in time to when the French and the Spanish landed here. You follow Texas maritime history not only in words but also in hundreds of displays containing artifacts from an era before the English colonies were established.

Present day life on the coast is part of the displays at the museum as well including information about shipping and off shore drilling in the area along with the role of big companies like Phillips66 in the coastal communities. I’ve been to many museums but none quite like this one. If you’re ever in the Rockport, Texas area, which lies just about thirty miles from Corpus Christi your time won’t be wasted visiting the Texas Maritime Museum.

Till next time, I’ll see ya down the road……………….

Hurricanes on the Texas Coast

Welcome back. With hundreds of ConocoPhillips and Phillips 66 employees in the Houston area and many more located along the Gulf of Mexico down to the big shipping center of Port Aransas, the impact of Hurricane Harvey has had is in many ways still reaching all the way to Bartlesville. This week with all the hurricanes we’ve had this year, I’m taking you back in time to August 25, 2017 when Hurricane Harvey first hit San Jose Island before making a bee line for the popular fishing town of Rockport, Texas.  The slow-moving storm dumped more than 40 inches of rain on the town over a four-day period and battered it with 130 mph winds, breaking records. Thousands of homes were flooded and there were 17,000 recorded water rescues. Just to show you how bad it was, prior to Harvey there were 9,223 tax paying properties in Rockport and after the storm only 1,002 remained.

The loss to the county was estimated at 812 million in housing and 134 million in business destruction. The town itself received close to 500 million dollars in property damages and suffered at least 100 million dollars in lost tourism revenue. Nursing homes, post offices, government buildings, churches and marinas were just some of the facilities that were either totally destroyed or left incapacitated for years. With all of this damage of course there were deaths, 107 in all and the first one occurred just a few blocks away from my current location.

Five years later this town is still struggling to recover as many motels and houses are still boarded up. Piers where hundreds of tourists come every year to fish are still not rebuilt and on San Jose Island several massive shipping barges that washed up there during the hurricane are sitting on dry ground hundreds of feet inland rusting away. There is also a labor shortage because most of the affordable housing was wiped out and has yet to be rebuilt.

One place I found that has rebuilt is the Schoenstatt (beautiful place) convent and retreat center which includes an important shrine. Most of the buildings on the property were heavily damaged by Harvey but today they have all been repaired or replaced, including construction of a new retreat center. If you are like me and have never heard of Schoenstatt, here’s a bit of history about the order.

The shrine is a replica of the original shrine in Germany, where the founder, Father Joseph Kentenich, together with a group of seminarians dedicated their lives to Mary, Mother Thrice Admirable in the covenant of love Oct. 18, 1914. Their mission was for the renewal of the world in Christ through Mary. This movement also established an order of nuns known as the Sisters of Mary. Today there are over 1800 Sisters of Mary throughout the world serving as advocates for women and children and devoting themselves to a life of piety. The shrines that they build at their convents are refuges of spiritual help and guidance, welcoming visitors of all faiths.

 Yes friends, there were a lot of people here and in Bartlesville who were impacted by this catastrophic storm Harvey which was one for the record books, proving that this part of the world can be both beautiful and dangerous.

Till next time I’ll see ya down the road…………….


San Jose Island-A Retreat for the Rich and Powerful

Welcome back. You may not know their names but down in Rockport, Texas where I’m “chasing a ghost”, Sid Richardson, Clint Murchison and the Bass family represent money, big money and yes there’s a tie to the Bartlesville area. But first I’m taking you back in time to 1937 when these oil tycoons owned a string of islands off the shores of Rockport which lies roughly thirty miles east of Corpus Christi. They were called the “islands of the oil kings” and it was Sid Richardson’s San Jose Island where Franklin Roosevelt sailed in on the presidential yacht to meet Murchison and Richardson who at the time were two of the richest men in the country.

Richardson built a house on the island that was designed to be hurricane proof. The compound included a separate house for the staff, shelter for cattle, dedicated sources of water and power and an airstrip but interestingly, no phone service. Richardson never married but he hosted many gatherings so the main house could sleep thirty-five people.

This island, along with Clint Murchison’s Matagorda Island which was close by hosted many prominent political figures including Dwight Eisenhower, Lyndon Johnson and former Texas Governor John Connolly all of whom benefited from Murchison’s and Richardson’s support.

In 1945 Murchison founded Delhi Oil Corporation which grew into one of the largest integrated independent oil companies in the country and his investment in gas reserves in western Canada led him to build the 2,100 miles Trans Canada Pipeline. The H.C. Price Pipeline Company, headquartered in Bartlesville, was involved in the construction of the pipeline.

Like Waite Phillips, Sid Richardson was a big supporter of the Boy Scouts and he built a ranch specifically for the scouts on Lake Bridgeport near Decatur, Texas. I discovered this description of the ranch on their website:

“Sid Richardson Scout Ranch (SR2) is a Texas–size camp with 15 miles of rugged shoreline on 10,000-acre Lake Bridgeport and 2,500 acres of scenic cliffs, prairie, and forests. The camp’s historic 1870’s U.S. Cavalry site is a centerpiece of the Chisholm Trail Adventure program at our Texas High Adventure Base.

SR2 offers over 70 Merit Badges, an air-conditioned dining hall, large pool, Technology Center, Flight Simulation Center with 16 F-16 cockpits (featured in Scouting magazine), horsemanship program, Space Shuttle Simulator, working Blacksmith Shop, Sailing Base with 24 sailboats, sporting clays range, Viking Ship, Trail to First Class first–year camper program, Climbing tower and cliffs, 2 Blobs, windsurfing, Mile Swim, Snorkeling, BSA Lifeguard, and much more.”

After his death Richardson left his nephew Perry Richardson Bass a sizeable inheritance which he grew into an oil and ranching empire. Bass had four sons all of whom attended Yale University and went on to very successful careers in energy and finance. The brothers are also known for their philanthropy, giving millions to universities, medical centers, conservation projects and the arts. One of the brothers, Lee Bass owns the former Chapman Ranch adjacent to the Nature Conservancy’s Tallgrass Prairie Preserve in Pawhuska among many ranching investments.

Today the Bass family still owns San Jose Island where they operate a cattle ranch and maintain Sid Richardson’s original compound which has undergone several renovations through the years. Clint Murchison’s Matagorda Island is operated as a wildlife management area, jointly owned by the Texas General Land Office and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and is cooperatively managed as the Matagorda Island National Wildlife Refuge and State Natural Area.

Yes, this week is the history of two men who had a profound Impact not only on Texas but on the whole world. While I continue my own investigation look for more from the Rockport, Texas area.

Till next time I’ll see ya down the road…………….

Frederick Drummond, Leader and Patriarch of the Drummond Clan

Welcome back. The Tallgrass Prairie Preserve in Osage County represents mother nature at her finest and back in the 1980s several people had the vision to protect it, one of whom passed away last week. The Tallgrass Prairie is just one small piece of his legacy. Born on July 13, 1931 in Enid, Oklahoma, he graduated from high school in Hominy, Oklahoma before getting a B.S. in Animal Science from OSU. After college he served in the Army where he attained the rank of 2nd Lieutenant and was stationed in Germany as an artillery officer. After his service to our country he earned an MBA from Stanford University in 1957 and went to work in a Kansas City bank for several years before moving back home to Hominy.

During the following years he built a ranch, got married, became the devoted father of four kids and was elected chairman of a local bank, all while learning the ins and outs of the oil business. Generous with his time and money, he served on the boards of many organizations, both statewide and national, and the list of his honors and awards could take up half my column. The Cattleman’s Hall of Fame, the OSU Hall of Fame, the Oklahoma Hall of Fame and the Western Heritage Center’s Hall of Great Westerners are just a few of the organizations which recognized his accomplishments and friends the list goes on.

You may have guessed who I’m talking about by now and you may also wonder how I know so much about this “legend.” I don’t use that word very often but it is appropriate for Frederick Ford Drummond, a man I had the honor to have known personally.  Yes, this humble man was who friends with most everyone he met, has died.

I had several lunches and dinners with Frederick at social events even going on a couple of trail rides with him. He was one of those guys who from the very first time you met him felt like he was your lifelong friend. We’ve lost several exceptional men and women in this area lately and Frederick is another. If you want to learn more about him check out his obituary which was published in the Tulsa World on October 20th and the original Drummond Family Home in Hominy is a museum and it’s a great little road trip that I think you’ll enjoy.

Moving on to another story that has its roots in Osage County, it’s Act III of Chasing A Ghost. Over the last few weeks, I’ve brought you the story of a missing girl that still keeps former District Attorney Bill Hall up at night. If you missed the earlier installments check out my website www.originalbuffalodale.com or stop by the Examiner where they have hard copies of past issues.

Pawhuska to Bartlesville is 29 miles, Tulsa is another 49 miles then on to Dallas, 257 miles and finally 431 miles to a small beach town outside of Corpus Christi. It’s a place I’ve never been before, full of history and also a town that now has a tie to Pawhuska. Next week I’ll be bringing you more.

Till then I’ll see ya down the road…………….


Ghost Writing

Welcome back. Giving Up the Ghost is a book written by my late friend Sanford “Sandy” Doty, a man whose writing career spanned over fifty years. Sandy lived in New York City where he was the ghost writer for the biographies of numerous famous people including Bette Davis, Helen Hayes and Elaine Barrymore along with many others. So just what is a ghost writer you may ask. According to Wikipedia:

“A ghostwriter is hired to write literary or journalistic works, speeches, or other texts that are officially credited to another person as the author. Celebrities, executives, participants in timely news stories, and political leaders often hire ghostwriters to draft or edit autobiographies, memoirs, magazine articles, or other written material. Memoir ghostwriters often pride themselves in “disappearing” when impersonating others since such disappearance signals the quality of their craftsmanship. Sometimes the ghostwriter is acknowledged by the author or publisher for his or her writing services, euphemistically called a “researcher” or “research assistant”, but often the ghostwriter is not credited.”

Having published well over a hundred biographical profiles, now I find myself in Sandy’s shoes. In his book he says that for every life story that he wrote, a little bit of him died and friends I know what he was talking about. When you spend hours, days or even years learning everything you can about your subject your life changes and you become the person you are writing about. Your own life becomes secondary and you lose a bit of your soul but it’s what I do. Now let me set the stage for another life story I’m working on, one with a tragic ending that’s sure to bring a tear to your eye.         

Act I.: Pawhuska, Oklahoma in 1976 when the town was booming. Houses were being built, new banks and other businesses were opening and many others were looking for buildings to rent but nothing was available in the downtown area. It’s a typical day in June and the weather was expected to be clear and dry.

It was a normal day for District Attorney Bill Hall until around noon when he got the first call from the Pawhuska Police Chief about a missing girl. A runaway Hall suggested. No way replied the chief. Boyfriend problems Hall asked. Again, the answer was no. She was just 15, a good student and a cheerleader from a well-respected loving family.

Bill quickly realized that foul play was involved in the girl’s disappearance and that he needed the assistance of the Oklahoma Bureau of Investigation. A purse, a half-eaten donut and the girl’s pom-poms was all the evidence that could be found in the laundromat where she had last been seen before she vanished. By the entrance investigators also found a washing machine half full of laundry with a sack of dirty clothes on the floor next to it but they could not determine if there was a connection to the missing girl or not.

These were the only clues law enforcement would find and the case has remained unsolved for 44 years as I put together another true story, next week Act II of “Give Up the Ghost.”

Till next time I’ll see ya down the road…….

Jim Halsey, Legendary Music Promoter

Welcome back. One was born and one died, this week it’s the story of two famous men from this area and I hope you enjoy the ride.

On October 7, 1930 a male child was born in Independence, Kansas who would go on to establish the largest country music management agency in the world. 41 of the top 100 country and pop acts were under contract to him when he sold the business to the William Morris Agency in 1990 in order to pursue teaching. The purchase helped make William Morris the giant company that it is today. This man, who will turn 90 on October 7th traveled the world with names like Roy Clark, the Judds and Roy Orbison. I mean the list of stars is endless. I hope you’ve heard of my friend Jim Halsey who now lives in Mounds with his wife Minisa. Jim has been inducted into both the Oklahoma Hall of Fame and the County Music Hall of Fame in Nashville for his accomplishments,

Minisa Halsey is the daughter of the renowned Indian artist Woody Crumbo and is an artist in her own right. Among their many projects, she and Jim have spent hours recording the life stories of people who have played an important role in American arts and culture, particularly in the south west which brings me to a video they made a few years back. Minisa had contacted me about interviewing Damon “Chub” Anderson as I was writing a book about him at the time. Chub agreed to meet with her and she filmed him at his home in Caney, Kansas. Having watched the film on several occasions I can say she is a very professional interviewer and that leads to the second anniversary.

Jim Halsey was born on October 7, 1930 and almost forty years later on September 26, 1970 E.C. Mullendore III was tragically murdered. I’m sure many of you know his story so I’ll be brief. At the time of his death the Mullendore family had over 400,000 acres under their Cross Bell brand and they also owned the New Orleans Saints football team. E.C. himself held the largest life insurance policy ever issued in the United States. If you haven’t heard about this murder it happened just north of Bartlesville and I hope you will be able to see Minisa’s film soon.

Next up are my travels from last week.  At the Tulsa fairgrounds where I attended the big flea market masks are mandatory and I would say 90% of the people I saw were in compliance although there was no enforcement. Unlike most weekends this was the only event taking place at the fairgrounds and the crowd was smaller than usual. In Pawhuska on Thursday and Friday the numbers of people were also down but there was still a two to three hour wait for a table at the Mercantile and I would say maybe a little more than half of the people who were outside like I was wore masks. Also, excitement is growing in town as the Pawhuska high school football team continued their roll with a big win over Hominy. This Friday they will be playing an away game with Commerce at 7PM and it should be a great game, check it out if you can.

Till next time I’ll see ya down the road…….

Jerry Poppenhouse, World Traveler

Welcome back. First the scoop, and if you’re a rodeo fan you’d better listen up. The BOK Center in Tulsa is going to open up to the general public for the first time since the pandemic started in March to host the Express Ranches PBR bull riding championships on October 10th and 11th. From what I’ve been told by officials with Express Ranches it looks like only fifty percent occupancy will be allowed. This event is always a big draw in Tulsa so if you like professional bull riding up close you’d better get your tickets now. For you new readers; I’ve written about Express Ranches in the past and their owner who as a boy growing up poor always wanted to own a cow or two and now after becoming quite successful, he owns thousands all over the country. Google the name Bob Funk, he has quite a life story.

Another man with an interesting life story is photographer extraordinaire Jerry Poppenhouse whose work is currently on display in the Lyon Gallery at the Bartlesville Community Center. Jerry went around the world taking photographs for Phillips Petroleum Company and documenting his travels along the way. You don’t want to miss this exhibit which will only be up for a few more weeks. I guarantee Jerry will take you places you’ve only dreamed about with his camera and as a special treat Mr. Poppenhouse himself will be in town on September 26th to open an interactive slideshow. One sequence of photos will make you feel like you are walking right on the Great Wall of China which Jerry did. This is just one reality show, there are several others so check out his work and if you are available come shake the hand of this legendary photographer.

On another subject if you enjoy a good stroll, I’d like to suggest downtown Bartlesville for your next outing. It seems like every time I visit; I see new shops opening up and this past week I came across a restaurant and bar called Crossing 2nd. Unfortunately, I didn’t have time to stay and eat but the menu looked very interesting so I plan a longer stay next time for sure.

Here’s a brief report from last week’s travels I hope you will enjoy. At Ree Drummond’s Mercantile in Pawhuska during the long Labor Day weekend the wait for lunch was anywhere from two to four hours but I didn’t hear any complaints.  Good food and plenty of it was the usual response from her clientele.  While I was in town autographing books, I took an informal survey and of course all the businesses I spoke with were happy to have the crowds back.

At the fairgrounds in Tulsa this past weekend another big crowd attended the gun show there on Saturday and Sunday. Many of the vendors said that some guns are getting very hard to find even for dealers. The same goes for the high-powered ammunition and bigger stores are having trouble stocking some calibers as well. I have been wearing a mask at these events but in Pawhuska only about half of the people I saw had one on. This was about the same in Tulsa; once people came through the door; they took their masks off.

As always, thanks for reading and till next time I’ll see ya down the road………………

Camping in the Time of Covid

Welcome back to my sixteenth Labor Day lake report and weather-wise what a great weekend to be out!

Up first, the town was first called Lawton, then changed its name to Weldon and finally when the railroad came through the name Copan stuck. A boom town in 1905, it’s a place where oil and gas operations still play a big role but this past weekend it was Copan Lake that was getting all the attention. When I drove through, I found that the campgrounds were completely sold out and the camp host said he was expecting another big group Monday after some of the spaces opened up so he planned to be sold out again. For those who weren’t camping there were plenty of swimming and picnicking spots and although the parking lot at the boat ramp was full of trucks and empty boat trailers there was room for more. An Army Corps of Engineers lake that opened in 1983, Copan Lake offers all the water sports, hunting and fishing and is definitely worth a drive to check it out.

Down the road at Hulah Lake all of the camping spots with electric were full but several primitive spots were still available. Another Army Corps lake, the campgrounds at Hulah are run by a group of volunteers dedicated to keeping this historic spot open and friends they do a great job. If you’re looking for beautiful views of the Osage countryside this is place. Campers told me the fishing is good too and get this camping is ten dollars a night for seniors. Heck for that price you might want to stay a month or two.

At Osage Hills State Park spots to park your camper with electric were sold out long ago. This is another beautiful place to hang your hat for a few days and you can call or check their website for information about available campsites and cottages.

Over in Will Rogers country the campgrounds on Lake Oolaghah were full too but there was a lot of room for swimming and picnicking. With clear water and lots of shade the lake is also close to the Will Rogers Museum in Claremore so don’t forget to visit Will when you’re in the area. I guarantee you’ll come out a better person.

I also visited several lakes in Kansas with the same results so here is my scoop of the week. Although camping is not allowed at Lake Hudson which sits just a few miles outside of Bartlesville, everything else is. The picnic tables are all in good shape and the grass is moved around them with plenty of shade trees as well, you can’t beat it. Scenic and little used from what I can see, the next time you’re taking a drive grab some takeout and give Lake Hudson a try.

On a side note for all you football fans, if you haven’t heard the Pawhuska Huskies are making a march to a state title and taking a big crowd with them. This is thanks in part to their quarterback who happens to be Ladd and Ree Drummond’s oldest son Bryce.  If you want to see what should be a great game and a big-time college bound player, they are playing Hominy in Pawhuska a week from Friday.

Till next time I’ll see ya down the road……………


Welcome back. Over the years much has been written about Woolaroc, both as a world class museum and a truly great wildlife preserve, but this week I’m taking you backstage at this terrific place for two reasons. First of all, every year for roughly the past twenty years I have received a nice letter from the last two Executive Directors there reminding me that my membership is due. During my travels around the country I enjoy talking about where I am from and when Woolaroc comes up I am always proud to say that I am a long-time member.

 Although I don’t get the time to visit as often as I would like I consider my membership to be an affordable way to support the organization and enjoy some great benefits.  For two people a partner level membership which is what I have costs 150 bucks and for this you get free unlimited admission for two and that’s year around. Folks, in the heat of the summer this museum is a perfect place to cool off in while getting a little culture and in the winter the buffalo are at their best enjoying what must be their favorite time of year. Want to take a friend when you visit? You will get two guest passes with your membership as well as invitations to special members only parties and discounts at the museum store. I can tell you that I’ve eaten more than $150 worth of food at the parties alone. Best of all you will be supporting this treasure that Frank Phillips left us, becoming a kind of business partner with this visionary man. If you’re not a member become one and tell your friends, you just can’t go wrong.

My second story about the museum is the real reason behind this column and it’s about a Woolaroc docent I knew who for years told stories to literally hundreds of travelers passing through from all over the world to experience the magic of Woolaroc. It’s a small story but one that should be much bigger about how after retirement he served on the board of directors for several area not-for-profits, spent hours volunteering not only at Woolaroc but for many other important causes as well. I only knew him for about ten years but he was one of the finest all-around gentlemen I have ever met. Yes, there have been many stories written about Woolaroc but the next time you visit ask one of the volunteers about Don Cone, I think you will find his story as inspiring as I do.

Next, the year was 1969 and in Osage County the newly elected District Attorney Bill Hall would be faced with the largest number of unsolved murder cases in the state. Over the next eight years every minute of every day from the mysterious deaths of Osage Indian women to the famous Mullendore murder which happened just days before he was sworn in, these cases consumed him. Then in 1976 the strangest mystery of Hall’s career happened right on the main street of Pawhuska. It’s a case that to this day is still stuck in his mind but I’m sorry to say that for now you’ll have to wait a bit longer to learn about this heartbreaking story.

Till next time I’ll see ya down the road….